ICN Pitesti had and still has as main task maintaining and developing the scientific and technological support for the national nuclear energy program, vital component in ensuring the sustainable, clean and safe energy for Romania's citizens. Romania's nuclear energy program foresees for the safe and competitive operation of Units 1 and 2 from Cernavoda, completion of Units 3 and 4, building a new nuclear power plant, promoting on the medium and long term of Generation IV advanced reactors, the safe storage of burned fuel and of radioactive waste. The Institute ensures the operation, development and use of the infrastructure required to carry-out the research and development programs, education and training of specialists, as well as a sustained international cooperation, as essential elements for a sustainable nuclear energy sector. Also, ICN promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in medicine, industry or agriculture adding an important contribution to increasing the citizens' life standard.
- Addressing with priority the issues of maintaining and expanding the knowledge base required for the safety management of the existing nuclear installations, for the issues of radioprotection and radioactive waste management (worldwide priorities that at the same time obey the international legislation and the agreements in which Romania takes past);
- Addressing future issues related to advanced nuclear reactors or Generation IV reactors (to which Romania must participate within international cooperation);
- Manufacturing nuclear technologies for applications in medicine and industry (for example: the manufacturing technology for using Molybdenum in medicine);
- Training and developing specialists in the nuclear field and the research personnel within the institute;
- Using and developing its own infrastructure for the scientific research, for the technological development and for testing in nuclear safety conditions, ensuring the conditioning and treatment of radioactive waste;
- Developing the cooperation within EURATOM in nuclear fission research programs.